(obsolete) An additional name, particularly those derived from a birthplace, quality, or achievement; an epithet.
* Arthour and Merlin , 5488:
* 1526 , (w, Tyndale's Bible), Acts I 23:
- Þe]] Osoman, cert, His surname was: hardi of [[heart, hert.
* 1590 , Richard Harvey, Plaine Percevall the peace-maker of England, Sweetly indeuoring with his blunt persuasions to botch vp a reconciliation between Mar-ton and Mar-tother , B3:
- Barsabas (whose syrname was Iustus).
* (William Shakespeare), (Coriolanus) , V iii 171:
- My sirname is Peace-Maker, one that is but poorely regarded in England.
(obsolete) An additional name given to a person, place, or thing; a byname or nickname.
* (w, Wycliff's Bible), Ecclus. XLVII 19:
- To his sur-name Coriolanus longs]] more pride
Then [[pity, pitty to our Prayers.
* 1638 , Abraham Cowley, (Davideis) , IV:
- In the name of the Lord, to whom the surname [toname in the 1382 ed.] is God of Israel.
The name a person shares with other members of that person's family, distinguished from that person's given name or names; a family name.
* 1393 , (William Langland), (Piers Plowman) , C iv 369:
- I have before declared that Baal was the Sun, and Baal Peor, a sirname , from a particular place of his worship.
* 1605 , William Camden, Remaines , I 32:
- Þat]] is reisonable...to refusy my [[sire's, syres sorname .
* 1876 , E. A. Freeman, The History of the Norman Conquest , V xxv 563:
- In late yeeres]] Surnames have beene given for Christian names among [[us, vs, and no where else in Christendom.
(Classical studies) The cognomen of Roman names.
* "St. John Baptist", 928 in W. M. Metcalfe, Legends of the saints: in the Scottish dialect of the fourteenth century (1896), II 249:
- The Norman Conquest...brought with it the novelty of family nomenclature, that is to say, the use of hereditary surnames .
(Scottish, obsolete) A clan.
* 1455 in J. D. Marwick, Charters of Edinburgh (1871), 79:
- Þe]] thred herrod had [[also, alsua til his suornome agrippa.
- The surnam and nerrest]] of [[blood, blude to the said Williame.
The term "surname" may be used to translate terms from non-English names which carry additional shades of meaning, most notably in the case of Roman cognomens. In fact, the nomen was the surname as the word is commonly understood today but the terms were first applied when surname was still used in the sense of "additional" or "added" name: the cognomen was added to the nomen to show the branch of the family involved. (The modern translation of a similar distinction in ancient Chinese names customarily uses ancestral name and clan name instead and typically speaks of surnames only once the two merged into a single and commonly-employed family name.)
* epithet (additional descriptive name )
* nickname, sobriquet, byname (additional name )
* family name, last name, to-name (hereditary name denoting one's family )
* See also
* adoption name
* bride’s name
* Christian name
* confirmation name
* first name
* given name
* maiden name
* middle name
* personal name
To give a surname .
To call by a surname .
* rectour (obsolete)
In the Anglican Church, a cleric in charge of a parish and who owns the tithes of it.
* , chapter=10
The Mirror and the Lamp
, passage=It was a joy to snatch some brief respite, and find himself in the rectory drawing–room. Listening here was as pleasant as talking; just to watch was pleasant. The young priests who lived here wore cassocks and birettas; their faces were fine and mild, yet really strong, like the rector'
s face; and in their intercourse with him and his wife they seemed to be brothers.}}
In the Roman Catholic Church, a cleric with managerial as well as spiritual responsibility for a church or other institution.
A headmaster in various educational institutions, e.g. a university.