From (etyl), from (etyl), from (etyl) .
A bad habit.
(legal) Any of various crimes related (depending on jurisdiction) to prostitution, pornography, gambling, alcohol, or drugs.
A defect in the temper or behaviour of a horse, such as to make the animal dangerous, to injure its health, or to diminish its usefulness.
* From the case of Scholefield v. Robb (1839).
- Smoking is a vice , not a virtue.
* (bad habit) virtue
* vice squad
From (etyl) ; akin to English withy.
* vise (US)
A mechanical screw apparatus used for clamping or holding (also spelled vise).
A tool for drawing lead into cames, or flat grooved rods, for casements.
(obsolete) A grip or grasp.
* 1597 , , II. I. 22:
- Fang. An I but fist him once; an a’ come but within my vice ,–
To hold or squeeze with a vice, or as if with a vice.
* 1610 , , I. ii. 416:
* De Quincey
- Camillo. As he had seen’t, or been an instrument / To vice you to't, that you have touched his queen / Forbiddenly
- The coachman's hand was viced between his upper and lower thigh.
From (etyl) , ablative form of vicis.
vice (no comparative or superlative)
in place of; subordinate to; designating a person below another in rank
- vice president
- vice admiral
* vice admiral
* vice governor
* vice mayor
* vice president
instead of, in place of
- A. B. was appointed postmaster vice C. D. resigned.
To use in place of something else, with the same function.
In the phrase "substitute X for Y", to use X in place of Y. With increasing frequency used in the semantically opposite sense (see
- I had no shallots so I substituted onion.
the OED's notes).
In the phrase "substitute X with/by Y", to use Y in place of X; to replace X with Y
- I had to substitute new parts for the old ones.
(sports) To remove (a player) from the field of play and bring on another in his place.
- I had to substitute old parts with the new ones. (This usage was formerly proscribed.)
- He was playing poorly and was substituted after twenty minutes
, date=April 11
, author=Phil McNulty
, title=Liverpool 3 - 0 Man City
, work=BBC Sport
, passage=Mario Balotelli replaced Tevez but his contribution was so negligible that he suffered the indignity of being substituted
himself as time ran out, a development that encapsulated a wretched 90 minutes for City and boss Roberto Mancini. }}
To serve as a replacement (for someone or something)
* 1987 , , Essays in Economics, Vol. 2 , p. 75
- Accumulation of wealth by this route may substitute for personal saving.
The verb "to substitute" can be used transitively in two opposite ways. "To substitute X" may mean either "use X in place of something else" (as in definitions 1 and 2), or "use something else in place of X" (as in definitions 3 and 4). The latter use is more recent, but it is widespread and now generally accepted (see
the COED's note on the matter). However, if the indirect object (the "something else") is omitted, the preposition is also omitted, and the reader or hearer cannot tell which sense is meant:
* "Substitute butter for olive oil" = Use butter instead of olive oil
* "Substitute olive oil for butter" = Use olive oil instead of butter
* "Substitute butter" = ???
* "Substitute olive oil" = ???
A replacement or stand-in for something that achieves a similar result or purpose.
* De Quincey
(sports) A player who is available to replace another if the need arises, and who may or may not actually do so.
- Ladies [in Shakespeare's age] wore masks as the sole substitute known to our ancestors for the modern parasol.
, date=November 3
, author=David Ornstein
, title=Macc Tel-Aviv 1 - 2 Stoke
, work=BBC Sport
, passage=Dean Whitehead opened the scoring shortly after the break with a low finish and substitute
Peter Crouch sealed the win with a tap-in.}}
(historical) One who enlists for military service in the place of a conscript.
* See also