From (etyl) and, an, from (etyl) and, ond, .
* et (obsolete)
As a coordinating conjunction; expressing two elements to be taken together or in addition to each other.
#Used simply to connect two noun phrases, adjectives or adverbs.
#* c. 1430' (reprinted '''1888 ), Thomas Austin, ed., ''Two Fifteenth-century Cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with Extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55 [Early English Text Society, Original Series; 91], London:
374760, page 11:
#*:In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
#*1817 , (Jane Austen), Persuasion :
#*:as for Mrs. Smith, she had claims of various kinds to recommend her quickly and permanently.
#*2011 , Mark Townsend, The Guardian , 5 November:
#*:‘The UKBA has some serious explaining to do if it is routinely carrying out such abusive and unlawful inspections.’
#Simply connecting two clauses or sentences.
#*1991 , (Jung Chang), Wild Swans :
#*:When she saw several boys carrying a huge wooden case full of porcelain, she mumbled to Jinming that she was going to have a look, and left the room.
#*2011 , Helena Smith & Tom Kington, The Guardian , 5 November:
#*:"Consensus is essential for the country," he said, adding that he was not "tied" to his post and was willing to step aside.
#Introducing a clause or sentence which follows on in time or consequence from the first.
#*1996 , David Beasley, Chocolate for the Poor :
#*:‘But if you think you can get it, Christian, you're a fool. Set one foot upcountry and I'll kill you.’
#*2004 , Will Buckley, The Observer :, 22 August:
#*:One more error and all the good work she had done on Friday would be for nought.
#(label) Yet; but.
#*1611 , Authorised (King James) Version, Bible , Matthew XXII:
#*:Hee said, I goe sir, and went not.
#Used to connect certain numbers: connecting units when they precede tens (not dated); connecting tens and units to hundreds, thousands etc. (now chiefly UK); to connect fractions to wholes.
#*1863 , (Abraham Lincoln), ‘Gettysburg Address’:
#*:Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that "all men are created equal".
#*:In Chicago these latter were receiving, for the most part, eighteen and a half cents an hour, and the unions wished to make this the general wage for the next year.
#*1956 , (Dodie Smith), (title):
#*:The One Hundred and One Dalmatians.
# Used to connect more than two elements together in a chain, sometimes to stress the number of elements.
#*1623 , (William Shakespeare), Julius Caesar , First Folio, II.2:
#*:And these does she apply, for warnings and' portents, / ' And euils imminent; and on her knee / Hath begg'd, that I will stay at home to day.
#*1939 , Langley, Ryerson & Woolf, The Wizard of Oz (screenplay):
#*:Lions, and' tigers, ' and bears! Oh, my!
#Connecting two identical elements, with implications of continued or infinite repetition.
#*1611 , Authorised (King James) Version, Bible , Psalms CXLV:
#*:I will extol thee, my God, O king; and I will bless thy name for ever and ever.
#*2011 , Jonathan Watts, The Guardian , 18 March:
#*:He was at work in a nearby city when the tsunami struck. ‘As soon as I saw it, I called home. It rang and rang, but there was no answer.’
#Introducing a parenthetical or explanatory clause.
#*1918 , , Prime Ministers and Some Others :
#*:The word "capable" occurs in Mr. Fisher's Bill, and rightly, because our mental and physical capacities are infinitely varied.
#*2008 , The Guardian , 29 Jan 2008:
#*:President Pervez Musharraf is undoubtedly sincere in his belief that he, and he alone, can save Pakistan from the twin perils of terrorism and anarchy.
#Introducing the continuation of narration from a previous understood point; also used alone as a question: ‘and so what?’.
#*1611 , Authorised (King James) Version, Bible , Revelation XIV:
#*:And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps.
#*1861 , (Charles Dickens), Great Expectations :
#*:‘You take it smoothly now,’ said I, ‘but you were very serious last night, when you swore it was Death.’ ‘And so I swear it is Death,’ said he, putting his pipe back in his mouth.
#*1914 , (Saki), ‘The Lull’, Beasts and Superbeasts :
#*:‘And , Vera,’ added Mrs. Durmot, turning to her sixteen-year-old niece, ‘be careful what colour ribbon you wear in your hair.’
#*1817 , (Jane Austen), Sanditon :
#*:Beyond paying her a few charming compliments and amusing her with gay conversation, had he done anything at all to try and gain her affection?
#*1989 , (James Kelman), A Disaffection :
#*:Remember and help yourself to the soup! called Gavin.
#Introducing a qualitative difference between things having the same name; "as well as other".
#*1936 , The Labour Monthly , vol. XVIII:
#*:Undoubtedly every party makes mistakes. But there are mistakes and mistakes.
#*1972 , Esquire , vol. LXXVIII:
#*:"There are managers and there are managers," he tells me. "I'm totally involved in every aspect of Nina's career."
#Used to combine numbers in addition; plus (with singular or plural verb).
#*1791 , (James Boswell), Life of Samuel Johnson :
#*:‘Nobody attempts to dispute that two and two make four: but with contests concerning moral truth, human passions are generally mixed.’
#*1871 , (Lewis Carroll), Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There :
#*:‘Can you do Addition?’ the White Queen asked. ‘What's one and' one '''and''' one '''and''' one '''and''' one '''and''' one '''and''' one '''and''' one '''and''' one ' and one?’
(label) Expressing a condition.
#*1485 , Sir Thomas Malory, Le Morte Darthur , Book VII:
#*:"Where ys Sir Launcelot?" seyde King Arthure. "And he were here, he wolde nat grucche to do batayle for you."
#*1526 , William Tyndale, trans. Bible , Matthew XIV:
#*:Peter answered, and sayde: master, and thou be he, bidde me come unto the on the water.
#*1958 , (Shirley Ann Grau), The Hard Blue Sky :
#*:"And he went slower," Mike said softly, "he go better."
#(label) As if, as though.
#*1600 , (William Shakespeare), A Midsummer Night's Dream , I.2:
#*:I will roare you, and 'twere any Nightingale.
#(label) Even though.
#*:As they will set an house on fire, and it were but to roast their eggs.
- Soupes dorye. — Take gode almaunde mylke
- Beginning a sentence with and or other coordinating conjunctions is considered incorrect by classical grammarians arguing that a coordinating conjunction at the start of a sentence has nothing to connect, but use of the word in this way is very common. The practice will be found in literature from Anglo-Saxon times onwards, especially as an aid to continuity in narrative and dialogue. The OED'' provides examples from the 9th century to the 19th century, including one from Shakespeare’s ''King John:'' “''Arthur''. Must you with hot Irons, burne out both mine eyes? ''Hubert.'' Young boy, I must. ''Arthur''. And will you? ''Hubert . And I will.” It is also used for other rhetorical purposes, especially to denote surprise
(O John! and you have seen him! And are you really going?—1884 in OED )
and sometimes just to introduce an improvised afterthought
(I’m going to swim. And don’t you dare watch—G. Butler, 1983)
It is, however, poor style to separate short statements into separate sentences when no special effect is needed: I opened the door and I looked into the room'' (not *''I opened the door. And I looked into the room''). Combining sentences or starting with ''in addition'' or ''moreover is preferred in formal writing.
- is often omitted for contextual effects of various kinds, especially between sequences of descriptive adjectives which can be separated by commas or simply by spaces
(The teeming jerrybuilt dun-coloured traffic-ridden deafening city—Penelope Lively, 1987)
is a well-established tag added to the end of a statement, as in
Isn’t it amazing? He has a Ph.D. and all—J. Shute, 1992
With the nominal meaning “also, besides, in addition”, the use has origins in dialect, as can be seen from the material from many regions given in the English Dialect Dictionary (often written in special ways, e.g., ). In many of the examples it seems to lack any perceptible lexical meaning and to be just a rhythmical device to eke out a sentence.
* (used to connect two similar words or phrases) as well as, together with, in addition to
From (etyl) ande, from (etyl) .
* aynd, eind, eynd, yane, end
From (etyl) anden, from (etyl) . See above.
* eind, eynd, ein
To breathe; whisper; devise; imagine.
British slang sense "police officer" from at least 1785.
[2003', Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina M. Hyams, ''An Introduction to Language'', ]
page 474 — Similarly, the use of the word '''''pig''''' for “policeman” goes back at least as far as 1785, when a writer of the time called a Bow Street police officer a “China Street ' pig .”
Any of several mammalian species of the genus Sus'', having cloven hooves, bristles and a nose adapted for digging; especially the domesticated farm animal ''Sus scrofa .
(lb) A young swine, a piglet .
* 2005 April, Live Swine from Canada, Investigation No. 731-TA-1076 (Final), publication 3766, April 2005, U.S. International Trade Commission (ISBN 1457819899), page I-9:
- The farmer kept a pen with two pigs that he fed from table scraps and field waste.
(uncountable) The edible meat of such an animal; pork.
- Weanlings grow into feeder pigs', and feeder '''pigs''' grow into slaughter hogs. Ultimately the end use for virtually all ' pigs and hogs is to be slaughtered for the production of pork and other products.
* 2005 , Ross Eddy Osborn, Thorns of a Tainted Rose (ISBN 0741425319), page 196:
- Some religions prohibit their adherents from eating pig .
Someone who overeats or eats rapidly and noisily.
- "Miss Chastene, could you fetch me out an extra plate of pig and biscuit[?] My partner can't do without your marvelous cooking."
A nasty or disgusting person.
- You gluttonous pig ! Now that you've eaten all the cupcakes, there will be none for the party!
A dirty or slovenly person.
- She considered him a pig as he invariably stared at her bosom when they talked.
- He was a pig and his apartment a pigpen; take-away containers and pizza boxes in a long, moldy stream lined his counter tops.
* 1989 , , (Carrion Comfort) ,
- The protester shouted, “Don't give in to the pigs !” as he was arrested.
- “...Sounds too easy,” Marvin was saying. “What about the pigs ?”
* 1990 , Jay Robert Nash, Encyclopedia of World Crime: Volume 1: A-C ,
- He meant police.
* 2008 , Frank Kusch, Battleground Chicago: The Police and the 1968 Democratic National Convention ,
- The bank robberies went on and each raid became more bloody, Meinhof encouraging her followers to “kill the pigs ” offering the slightest resistance, referring to policemen.
* 2011 , T. J. English, The Savage City: Race, Murder and a Generation on the Edge ,
- Backing 300 of the more aggressive protesters was a supporting cast of several thousand more who stared down the small line of police. Those in front resumed their taunts of “Pig', '''pig''', fascist '''pig''',” and “'''pigs''' eat shit, ' pigs eat shit.” The rest of the crowd, however, backed off and sat down on the grass when reinforcements arrived. Police did not retaliate for the name-calling, and within minutes the line of demonstrators broke apart and the incident was over without violence.113
(informal) A difficult problem.
- But me, I joined the party to fight the pigs . That?s why I joined. Because my experience with the police was always negative.
(countable, and, uncountable) A block of cast metal.
- Hrm... this one's a real pig : I've been banging my head against the wall over it for hours!
- The conveyor carried the pigs from the smelter to the freight cars.
The mold in which a block of metal is cast.
- After the ill-advised trade, the investor was stuck with worthless options for 10,000 tons of iron pig .
(engineering) A device for cleaning or inspecting the inside of an oil or gas pipeline, or for separating different substances within the pipeline. Named for the pig-like squealing noise made by their progress.
- The pig was cracked, and molten metal was oozing from the side.
(pejorative) a person who is obese to the extent of resembling a pig (the animal)
The general-purpose M60 machine gun, considered to be heavy and bulky.
- Unfortunately, the pig sent to clear the obstruction got lodged in a tight bend, adding to the problem.
- Unfortunately, the M60 is about twenty-four pounds and is very unbalanced. You try carrying the pig around the jungle and see how you feel.
* (mammal of genus Sus) hog, swine, see also
* (someone who overeats or eats rapidly) see
* (nasty or disgusting person) see
* (police officer) see
* (mammal of genus Sus) boar, herd boar; sow, brood sow; piglet, piggy
(terms derived from the noun "pig")
* blind pig
* bush pig
* dish pig
* eat like a pig
* flying pig
* guinea pig
* happy as a pig in shit
* if pigs had wings
* in a pig's eye
* pig bed
* piggy bank
* pig in a blanket
* pig in a poke
* pig iron
* pig it
* pig Latin
* pig lead
* pig out
* potbellied pig
* suckling pig
* sweat like a pig
* when pigs fly
* whistle pig
* year of the pig
* Abenaki: (l) (from "pigs")
* Malecite-Passamaquoddy: (l) (from "pigs")
(of swine) to give birth.
To greedily consume (especially food).
- The black sow pigged at seven this morning.
* 2009 , Thomas Pynchon, Inherent Vice , Vintage 2010, p. 349:
- ''They were pigging on the free food at the bar.
To huddle or lie together like pigs, in one bed.
- "Wow, Doc. That's heavy." Denis sat there pigging on the joint as usual.
Origin unknown. See (m).
(Scottish) earthenware, or an earthenware shard
An earthenware hot-water jar to warm a bed; a stone bed warmer