### Knowledge-centered there are student-driven approaches to solve a

Knowledge-centered environments provide numerous of ways to comprehendknowledge, as well as acquire problem-solving skills.

Educators need to promoteliteracy in the classroom. Studentshave to be literate (able to understand, utilize and comprehend the subject’slanguage) to create, communicate and compute with others. Math and science havejargon and symbols that differ from the English language. For example,mathematical and scientific literacy consists of mathematical & scientific knowledge,methods, and processes applied in various contexts in metacognitive ways. Inorder for that to happen, students need to follow the math and science proficiencies. The math proficiencies have fivecomponents: conceptual understanding (comprehension of concepts, operations,and relations), procedural fluency (carrying out procedures efficiently andappropriately), strategic competence (formulating, representing, and solvingproblems), adaptive reasoning (capacity for logical thought and reflection),and productive disposition (seeing math as meaningful). The scienceproficiencies are similar except its problems are not always computational;they do not include procedural fluency and emphasizes more on scientificexplanations of the world. Although readingstrategies seem only useful in English class, they can be used in anysubject, especially math and science to teach students text comprehension.

Theycan increase students’ conceptual understanding of math and science. Oncestudents obtain the necessary information, they need a method. Fortunately,there are student-driven approaches to solve a problem. One example is modeling, which involves either ateacher demonstration (scaffolding) or a visual representation of the problem.A specific case is a model elicitingactivity (MEA). MEAs pose as open-ended problems and challenge students tobuild models in order to solve complex, real-world problems. MEAs encouragestudents to invent and test models, which makes their thinking visible. Another problem solving method is anchored instruction (AI).

Like MEA, itis a form of context-based learning designed to encourage students and teachersto pose and solve realistic problems. Inquirydiffers from the rest because it is an active learning process in which students answer researchquestions through actual data analysis. Inquiry instruction involves students in a form ofactive learning that emphasizes questioning, data analysis, and criticalthinking.

Another form of inquiry is argument-driveninquiry (ADI). It attempts to develop an argument that provides andsupports an explanation for the research question using claim, evidence, and reasoning (CER). CER helps students learn how to determine if available data are relevant,sufficient, and convincing enough to support their claims. Overall, aknowledge-centered environment builds a strong foundational structure forstudents to further their learning.